Standards

Data standardization is the adoption of shared health vocabularies to facilitate the exchange and use of information from interoperable and integrated digital information systems’ The Public Health Development and Social Cognition (PHDSC) empowers adherence to Common Data Models (CDM) in order that information from disparate systems may be combined and compared. Common Data Models are codified criteria to specify the content and format of clinical monitoring data so that software, devices, and protocols which imple-ment that the CDM benchmark can be used.’ By way of instance, the Biomedical Translational Research Information System (BTRIS) in the National Institutes for Health (NIH) translates information from other sources into a typical construction (e.g., Health Level 7) and speech (e.g., ICD-9, SNOMED) to ensure the information could be handled and analyzed more readily, allowing researchers to query multiple information sources simultaneously and get broader outcomes.’ BTRIS is a source accessible to the NIH intramural community which brings together clinical study data in the Clinical Center and other NIH Institutes and Centers.” BTRIS supplies clinical researchers using identifiable information for topics in their active protocols, while supplying all NIH researchers using information (1976–current ) without personal identifiers across all protocols” SNOMED CT is a systematically arranged, computer processable clinical healthcare language for electronic health records (EHR) and comprises over 311,000 active concepts with unique meanings and proper logic-based definitions arranged into hierarchies.’ It’s used to track the prevalence and incidence of diseases and other health issues, and also to classify diseases and other health issues listed on various kinds of health and vital records such as death certificates and health records.’